The most innocuous of scrapes can become the ugliest of scars and the worst among them tend to be keloid scars, but why? And how can this occurrence be prevented? Scar formation is a natural part of the healing process in which fibrous tissue replaces normal skin after injury. Composed of the same protein found in tissue (collagen), the actual fiber composition (instead of random basketweave structures, the collagen in scars is aligned in one direction) is where the difference emerges.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects more than 1.4 million people in the United States alone. While IBD is often confused with irritable bowel syndrome, the two conditions are not the same. This isn’t to diminish irritable bowel syndrome, which can cause serious gastrointestinal discomfort. It simply doesn’t lead to the same visible inflammation and damage in the intestines that we usually see in IBD. IBD manifests in various forms, but the two most common—and well-known—types are Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Cases of Crohn’s disease, in particular, are increasing, supporting the need to find an effective course of treatment for the condition.

Each year, almost 1.3 million people in the United States die in road crashes, with an astonishing average of 3,287 deaths each day. Unsurprisingly, a large number of these fatal accidents occur at night, and though extraneous factors such as driving speed, alcohol use and sleep deprivation contribute to the danger of driving at night, researchers do agree that “low luminance plays a major role in this effect.”

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